ABOUT THIS WEBSITE...
The "NEUROLOGIC EXAM VIDEOS AND DESCRIPTIONS: AN ANATOMICAL APPROACH" uses over 250 video demonstrations with narrative descriptions in an online tutorial. It presents the anatomical foundations of the neurologic exam and provides examples of both normal and abnormal conditions as exhibited by patients. Use the Table of Contents on the left to access these tutorials, organized by type of exam.
The website combines the use of anatomical diagrams, live patient exams, video patient cases and self-evaluation tools to accomplish its educational goals. It utilizes clinical video patient cases as digital movie files that can be viewed online or freely downloaded for local repurposing.
This "Clinical Dissection of the Nervous System: An Internet Accessible Tutorial" for Medical Neuroscience is authored by the University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Medicine (Paul D. Larsen, MD) and the University of Utah School of Medicine (Suzanne S. Stensaas, PhD), with some section movies contributed by the Fundación Stern, Buenos Aires, Argentina (Alejandro Stern).
The presentations interweave the neurological examination with neuroanatomy, laying the foundation for clinical problem solving by...
- first, establishing the anatomical concept;
- second, demonstrating the problem solving method;
- then third, allowing active participation in applying the method.
Anatomy and pathology of the nervous system is understood by directly visualizing it. This is best accomplished by handling the brain (or model of the brain as the case may be) and dissecting or taking it apart for direct examination. The purpose (for the clinician) of understanding neuroanatomy and neurophysiology is to be able to use that knowledge to solve clinical problems.
The first step in solving a clinical problem is anatomical localization. So, if one cannot directly inspect the patient's brain, how is this localization accomplished? The "WINDOW TO THE PATIENT'S BRAIN" is the neurological examination. A neuro exam is a series of tests and observations that reflects the function of various parts of the brain. If the exam is approached in a systematic and logical fashion that is organized in terms of anatomical levels and systems, then the clinician is lead to the anatomical location of the patient's problem.
A complementary site attached to NEUROLOGIC EXAM is Neurologic Cases. In a step-by-step method, Neurological Cases allows the learner to practice anatomical localization of neurologic pathologies. The six steps are...
- (1) View the Case History;
- (2) View the Neurological Exam;
- (3) Select from the Checklist of Finding;
- (4) Localize the Level(s) of the Lesion;
- (5) Identify the damaged Structures; and
- (6) View the Case Discussion.
To access NeuroLogic Cases, use the link at the top of any web page in this site, or along the left-hand Table of Contents.
ABOUT VIEWING MOVIES...
ONLINE VIEWING OF MOVIES:
Along with text descriptions, each of the 250 movies in the Neurologic Exam can be viewed online...
- 640x480 in size (some will be widescreen)
- Videos will play on most computer platforms, operating systems, and many mobile devices.
- A poster frame/thumbnail displays for each video. Click the triangular PLAY button located in the center of a poster frame to start the video.
For a video, you have the following viewing options...
Click a blue button labeled "VIEW VIDEO IN SEPARATE PAGE" to open a separate, floating window that displays the video, its title, and text description.
- Pause | Play
- Skip to different times in the video
- Adjust volume
- Turn closed captions ON or OFF
- Adjust the speed of playback
- Expand the video to full screen (however, very large full screen resolutions appear somewhat fuzzy)
Each movie is Closed Caption in English (see below for instructions to turn captions ON or OFF.
DOWNLOAD MOVIES (in a variety of formats):
If you prefer to download our movies for later viewing or for re-use, click a blue button labeled "Download Video" next to each movie. A separate web page opens that offers three different video formats for each movie file:
- QuickTime, 640x480/640x360; High Quality MPEG-4, H.264 compression (good for Macintosh-based PowerPoint or Keynote presentation software), captioned in English
- Windows Media, 640x480/640x360; High Quality WinMedia v9 compression (good for Windows-based PowerPoint presentation software).
- Mobile Devices & SmartPhones, MPEG-4 baseline compression for many portable devices.
- Some movies, such as the Neuroanatomy Video Lab: Brain Dissections, are also available in high-definition 1280x720 format.
ABOUT CLOSED CAPTIONS IN ENGLISH...
As of November 2012 (and updated in 2016), the videos that you view online, as will as the downloaded QuickTime 640x480 versions of our movies, include closed captions in English. Complete instructions for turning captions ON or OFF are available from the page "HOW TO SHOW CLOSED CAPTIONS ." There is also a link in the left-hand side Table of Contents.
Summarized below is the quick version of the instructions for turning captions ON or OFF:
- VIEWING ONLINE IN THE WEBSITE: Any movie you play directly online from the website has closed captions that can be turned ON or OFF from its playback control bar. This is true even if you decide to view a video in a separate web page by clicking the blue button labeled VIEW VIDEO IN SEPARATE PAGE.
- Some movies indicate they are "without sound." In such cases, there are no captions.
- The default display has the closed captions turned "ON".
- Turn the closed captions "OFF" by using the button "CC" located in the control bar for a video.
- VIEWING AFTER DOWNLOADING A MOVIE: If you download the QuickTime version of our movies, the downloaded movie can be viewed directly in Apple's QuickTime Player, Apple iTunes, or a variety of other QuickTime compatible players. To reveal the closed captions:
- Select the player's menu item named either "VIEW" or sometimes "CONTROLS."
- Then select "SHOW CLOSED CAPTIONING" or "SUBTITLES>ENGLISH CC," depending on the player you are using.
- Please be sure you are not using Windows Media Player to display our captioned QuickTime movies. Our captions cannot be revealed when watching the movies with Windows Media Player, even though by automatic default, Windows Media Player may try to open and play the captioned QuickTime video.
- MOBILE DEVICES: Additional instructions for revealing closed captions in mobile devices, such as iPhones and iPads, are found on the page "HOW TO SHOW CLOSED CAPTIONS ." Some mobile devices may not display the captions.
A companion website to the Adult Neurologic Exam is the Pediatric Neurologic Exam, where the neurological examination of the pediatric patient is presented within the context of neurodevelopmental milestones for Newborns, 3 month-olds, 6 month-olds, 12 month-olds, 18 month-olds, and 2-and-a-half year-olds.
To access the Pediatric Neurologic Exam, use the link at the top of any web page in this site or along the left-hand side Table of Contents.
ABOUT NEUROANATOMY VIDEO LAB: BRAIN DISSECTIONS...
An additional resource has been added to the Neurologic Exam website in 2013. Suzanne S. Stensaas, Ph.D., shares her years of expertise and teaching experience by showing us dissections of the human brain and its structures that are important for understanding neurological principles and localization (deciding where in the brain a disease process is occurring).
There are 14 videos in the Neuroanatomy Video Lab: Brain Dissections, and they are found on their own web page within the Neurologic Exam website. To access the page, use the link at the top of this web page or along the left-hand side Table of Contents (under ADDITIONAL RESOURCES).
An Online Neuroanatomy Tutorial, called "HyperBrain," has also been linked to the Neurologic Exam website. It is designed as a supplement to textbook and class learning or as a lab substitute when human specimens, slides and models are not available.
HyperBrain includes thousand of images and hundreds of linked illustrated glossary terms, as well as movies, quizzes and interactive animations.
To access the website, use the link at the top of this web page or along the left-hand side Table of Contents (under ADDITIONAL RESOURCES).
An online tutorial, called "Lumbar Puncture: The Procedure and CSF Analysis," is available from Paul D. Larsen, M.D., The University of Nebraska School of Medicine.
This tutorial is a comprehensive overview of the procedures related to lumbar punctures and the followup analysis of the cerebralspinal fluid. Topics include:
- CSF Anatomy
- CSF Physiology
- Anatomy of LP
- LP the Procedure
- Pediatric Considerations
- CSF Lab Evaluation
- CSF in Selected Diseases
- Complications of LP
To access the website Lumbar Puncture: The Procedure and CSF Analysis, use the link at the top of this web page or along the left-hand side Table of Contents (under ADDITIONAL RESOURCES).